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1     What defines complex engineered systems?
      a) They consist of simple parts
      b) They have linear life cycles
      c) They are highly interconnected and autonomous
      d) They follow traditional design approaches
2    Which section of the course provides an overview of complexity theory and basic concepts?
      a) Section 1: Major Themes in the 21st Century
      b) Section 2: Introduction to Design Methods
      c) Section 3: Principles of Complex Systems Design
      d) Section 4: Systems Architecture and Paradigm Shifts
3    What is one of the key takeaways from the course?
      a) The importance of linear systems in design
      b) The power of abstraction in solving complexity
      c) The necessity of centralized control in complex systems
      d) The exclusion of social and cultural domains in design
4    Which principle emphasizes understanding systems as networks?
      a) Linear systems design
      b) Autonomous systems design
      c) Networked systems design
      d) Adaptive systems design
5    What is one of the primary drivers of a more complex design environment in the 21st century?
      a) The decline of sustainability as a paradigm
      b) The reduced impact of information technology
      c) The shrinking services economy
      d) The expansion of economic globalization
6    What equation demonstrates the need for sustainability in systems design?
      a) Exponential growth + linear system = sustainability
      b) Linear growth + finite resources = sustainability
      c) Exponential growth + infinite resources = sustainability
      d) Linear growth + infinite resources = sustainability
7    What effect does information technology have on systems design?
      a) It centralizes control and coordination
      b) It limits innovation and co-creation
      c) It enables networked organization and democratization
      d) It decreases connectivity and interdependence
8    What is the dominant logic behind designing services?
      a) Designing more tangible goods
      b) Designing systems for stable environments
      c) Designing processes around end-user needs
      d) Designing services for producers rather than consumers
9    What is a key theme in the design of complex systems?
      a) Technological advancement over social considerations
      b) Static and predictable systems for stable environments
      c) Socio-technical systems and the role of people
      d) Linear life cycles and centralized control
10     Which design paradigm focuses on open systems and emergent functionality?
       a) Reductionism
       b) Linear systems design
       c) Complex systems design
       d) Traditional engineering approaches
11    Complex systems are characterized by:
      a) Well-defined boundaries and full control over elements
      b) Randomness and chaos
      c) Openness and lack of control
      d) Orderliness and predictability
12    The primary focus in designing complex systems is on:
      a) Making things bigger, faster, and better
      b) Designing the protocols and interactions for diverse components to work together
      c) Controlling the network and its users
      d) Designing the system in all its details
13    The concept of a service system refers to:
      a) Designing isolated products
      b) Integrating products into systems of services
      c) Designing complex sociotechnical systems
      d) Delivering tangible goods to end users
14    Abstraction in design involves:
      a) Adding more detail to a representation
      b) Focusing on the essential features of a system
      c) Increasing complexity and reducing simplicity
      d) Eliminating all levels of detail from a representation
15    Complex systems have two fundamentally different levels, which are:
      a) Macro and micro
      b) Top-down and bottom-up
      c) Simple and complex
      d) Design and engineering
16    Synergistic design approach focuses on:
      a) Interfering with the interactions between components
      b) Creating zero-sum games within the system
      c) Designing relations that lead to positive-sum games
      d) Reducing complexity and diversity in the system
17     In networked systems design, the emphasis is on:
      a) Properties of individual components
      b) Making things bigger, faster, and stronger
      c) Access, connectivity, and network structure
      d) Controlling and isolating components within the system
18    The true geometry of complex systems is defined by:
      a) Static properties of individual components
      b) Randomness and chaos
      c) Degree of connectivity and network structure
      d) Well-defined boundaries and control over elements
19    Network theory provides models for analyzing:
      a) Linear systems
      b) Simple systems
      c) Isolated components
      d) Networks and their properties
20    Designing for a densely populated urban environment requires consideration of:
       a) Randomness and chaos
       b) Dispersed networks
       c) Access, connectivity, and network structure
       d) Well-defined boundaries and control over elements
21    What is the term used to describe the rapid spread of failures in highly interconnected systems?
   a) Decentralization
   b) Centralization
   c) Specialization
   d) Propagation
22    In large, highly interconnected systems, it is not always possible to know all the:
   a) Dependencies
   b) Inter-linkages
   c) Failures
   d) Specializations
23    The internet is considered a "best effort network" because:
   a) It is fault-tolerant
   b) It is perfectly secure
   c) It prioritizes data packets
   d) It drops packets and retries if something goes wrong
24    Centralized networks are characterized by:
   a) High degree of control and efficiency
   b) Interchangeable and replaceable nodes
   c) Decentralized decision-making
   d) Reduced vulnerability to strategic attacks
25    Decentralized networks are more robust to failure because they have:
   a) More specialized components
   b) Higher level of dependencies
   c) Fewer interconnections
   d) Less self-sufficiency
26    Adaptive technologies refer to networks that can:
   a) Resist change and maintain stability
   b) Respond to environmental events
   c) Reject dependencies and inter-linkages
   d) Centralize control and resources
27    What is the capacity of a system to alter its state in response to the environment called?
   a) Adaptation
   b) Fault tolerance
   c) Centralization
   d) Interchangeability
28    Self-organization in design refers to:
   a) Professional designers producing finished products
   b) Redesigning products by end users
   c) Predefined systems of mass production
   d) Linear models of design engineering
29    Co-creation in the development of a product or service involves:
   a) Passive consumption by end users
   b) Professional designers pushing finished products
   c) Two-way interplay between designers and end users
   d) Linear life-cycle from conception to retirement
30    System life-cycle in systems engineering includes:
   a) Construction, operation, and maintenance
   b) Retire and phase-out only
   c) Linear progression from cradle to grave
   d) Adaptation, production, and distribution
31    What is the main purpose of a service-oriented architecture (SOA)?
      a) Creating autonomous services
      b) Developing monolithic systems
      c) Building composite functions
      d) Designing internal components
32    How can Google's map service, PayPal's payment gateway service, and Facebook's user log-in service be integrated?
      a) By developing a subsystem for each service
      b) By creating common processes to guide user interactions
      c) By bundling all services into a monolithic system
      d) By abstracting away the services' internal logic
33    What is service autonomy in SOA?
      a) The control of services' internal logic by external components
      b) The unbundling of monolithic systems
      c) The aggregation of services through a network
      d) The conversion of components into services
34    What is service discoverability in SOA?
      a) The ability of services to effectively communicate with each other
      b) The availability of services to be reconfigured for different applications
      c) The use of standardized service contracts
      d) The supplementation of services with communicative metadata
35    What is a standardized service contract in SOA?
      a) An agreement between service providers and users
      b) A communication agreement for service description documents
      c) A set of defined protocols and procedures for service integration
      d) A common language used to describe service functionality and interaction
36    What does it mean for services to be loosely coupled in SOA?
      a) Services can dynamically join or leave the system as needed
      b) Services are tightly integrated with the system's components
      c) Services are independent of any particular process or configuration
      d) Services can be endlessly reused and recomposed into new configurations
37    What is service reusability or composability in SOA?
      a) The ability to extend services for new applications
      b) The provision of resources for effective load balancing
      c) The ability to integrate heterogeneous components
      d) The ability to reuse and combine services into new configurations
38    What is the value of SOA in complex systems and large enterprises?
      a) Abstraction and scalability across different levels of architecture
      b) Standardization of service contracts and interfaces
      c) Dynamic provisioning and de-provisioning of resources
      d) Integration of diverse services for composite functions
39    What are platform technologies in systems architecture?
      a) Systems built upon a platform architecture with different levels of abstraction
      b) Technologies that enable the bundling and re-bundling of components
      c) Systems that provide basic services for different configurations
      d) Technologies that require new process introductions for each product
40    What is the role of the platform layer in systems architecture?
       a) It manages the computer's resources and services for applications
       b) It translates the system's internal logic into a language the end-user understands
       c) It provides the foundation for the hardware and firmware of the system
       d) It enables the endless bundling and re-bundling of different components
41    What is one benefit of platform technologies?
      a) Abstraction of complexity
      b) Increased redundancy
      c) Limited customization
      d) Homogeneous design
42    What is a key feature of modular design?
      a) Autonomous modular components
      b) Centralized control mechanism
      c) Homogeneous integration
      d) Lack of versatility
43    What does an interface do in modular design?
      a) Abstracts away internal mechanics
      b) Encapsulates the whole system
      c) Defines distinct separate functions
      d) Reduces system dependencies
44    What is an advantage of modular design?
      a) Distributed collaboration and problem-solving
      b) Limited reusability of modules
      c) Homogeneous system design
      d) Increased complexity of components
45    What is event-driven architecture (EDA) primarily focused on?
      a) Production and detection of events
      b) Centralized coordination mechanism
      c) Linear and synchronous environments
      d) Homogeneous system integration
46    What are event consumers in an event-driven architecture?
      a) Entities that need to know the event has occurred
      b) Sources of events
      c) Intermediaries managing events
      d) Downstream activities initiated by an event
47    What is an advantage of using an event-driven architecture?
      a) Greater responsiveness in unpredictable environments
      b) Centralized control and coordination of events
      c) Real-time analytics based on historical data
      d) Reduced versatility and adaptability
48    What is design thinking?
      a) A design process for solving complex problems
      b) A linear and mechanical problem-solving approach
      c) A method for building homogeneous systems
      d) A process focused solely on end-user experience
49    What is the purpose of prototyping in the design thinking process?
      a) To experiment and discover how to build the solution
      b) To gather feedback and make iterations
      c) To deploy the solution in its operating environment
      d) To create a minimal viable product
50    How can design thinking be applied in various domains?
       a) By recognizing that everything in the world is designed
       b) By focusing exclusively on product design
       c) By limiting its application to specific industries
       d) By following a rigid and linear design process

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